Collect and transform stakeholder needs, expectations, constraints, and interfaces into prioritized stakeholder requirements.


The needs of relevant stakeholders (e.g., customers, end users, suppliers, builders, testers, manufacturers, logistics support staff, service delivery staff, the organization) are the basis for determining stakeholder requirements. Stakeholder needs, expectations, constraints, interfaces, operational concepts, and service concepts are analyzed, harmonized, refined, prioritized, and elaborated for translation into a set of stakeholder requirements.

Requirements collected from customers and end users of the service to be delivered are documented in the service agreement. These requirements are also used to derive requirements for the service system. These derived requirements are combined with other requirements collected for the service system to result in the complete set of stakeholder requirements.

Refer to the Service Delivery (SD) (CMMI-SVC) process area for more information about analyzing existing agreements and service data.

These stakeholder requirements should be stated in language that relevant stakeholders can understand, yet precise enough for the needs of those who develop the service or service system.


Examples of stakeholder requirements include the following:
  • Operations requirements
  • Customer delivery requirements
  • Monitoring requirements
  • Instrumentation requirements
  • Documentation requirements
  • Operating level agreement requirements
  • Organizational standards for product lines and standard services
  • Requirements from agreements with other relevant stakeholders

Example Work Products

  1. Customer requirements
  2. End-user requirements
  3. Customer and end-user constraints on the conduct of verification and validation
  4. Staffing level constraints


1. Engage relevant stakeholders using methods for eliciting needs, expectations, constraints, and external interfaces.

Eliciting goes beyond collecting requirements by proactively identifying additional requirements not explicitly provided by customers through methods such as surveys, analyses of customer satisfaction data, prototypes, simulations, or quality attribute elicitation workshops.

2. Transform stakeholder needs, expectations, constraints, and interfaces into prioritized stakeholder requirements.

The various inputs from relevant stakeholders should be consolidated and prioritized, missing information should be obtained, and conflicts should be resolved in documenting the recognized set of stakeholder requirements.

3. Define constraints for verification and validation.